Publication Ethics

Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology (AJMB) follows the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) policies, and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJERecommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology (AJMB) strongly considers the "ethical standards for publication" to ensure the "high-quality scientific publications". AJMB follows Helsinki Declaration. If AJMB suspects an ethical problem with a submitted manuscript it will follow the COPE flow chart (PDF, 68 kb)

 Publication ethics

AJMB is considering the committee's guidelines in all aspects of publication ethics (PDF, 476 kb).


According to the ICMJE, the authorship should be based on the following criteria:

In such a case, AJMB will follow the COPE guidelines and acts based on COPE flowchart provided below:


Withdrawal is an action that takes the manuscript out of the review process and places it back into the author’s dashboard. In general, AJMB does suggest article withdrawal as it wastes valuable manuscript processing time.



AJMB follows COPE in this matter.

Redundant (Duplicate) publication

Duplicate or redundant submission is the submission of the same manuscript (or the same data) to different journals at the same time. In such a case, AJMB will follow the COPE guidelines and acts based on COPE flowchart.


Plagiarism is presenting someone else's work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement.

AJMB is committed to publishing original studies and timely reviews that have neither been published nor are under review elsewhere. AJMB is powered by iThenticate software, a plagiarism detector service that considers the originality of content submitted before publication. All the submitted manuscripts are subjected to iThenticate software check twice namely at the time of submission and before publication. When plagiarism is identified, AJMB acts based on flowcharts and workflows determined by COPE flowchart.

Data Fabrication and Falsification

Data fabrication: This concerns the making up of research findings. Data falsification: Manipulating research data with the intention of giving a false impression.

AJMB will follow the COPE guidelines and acts based on COPE flowchart if submitted manuscripts, are found to include either fabricated or falsified data including the manipulation of images.


Articles may be retracted when their findings are no longer considered trustworthy due to scientific misconduct or error, they plagiarize previously published work, or they are found to violate ethical guidelines.

In keeping with COPE's Retraction Guidelines, AJMB will consider retracting a publication if:

Authors or editors of the journal may retract a paper. However, the final decision is made by the editors for retracting the material. If none of the authors will approve to publish a retraction, the editor/s may request such a retraction from the investigating institution, or the editor may ask for a retraction on behalf of the journal. In each condition, the editor should inform the author(s) or institution affiliated to the author(s) for publishing a retraction.

Note: After publishing a retraction, HTML version of the document will not be removed from the site. Additionally, The PDF file of the article is retained unchanged; only a watermark showing “retracted” label is placed on each page of the PDF. Finally, a link is made to the original article.

Citation manipulation

Manipulating citations in research articles is one form of academic research misconduct that violates publication ethics. Citation manipulation simply occurs for the purpose of increasing the number of citations of a researcher or a journal.

Academic dishonesty

Academic honesty is defined as completing all academic work without cheating, lying, stealing, or receiving assistance from any other person or using any source of information not appropriately authorized or attributed. All students are required to follow the academic honesty policy.

Conflict of Interest (CoI)

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interestsfinancial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another. Typically, this relates to situations in which the personal interest of an individual or organization might adversely affect a duty owed to make decisions for the benefit of a third party. AJMB will follow the COPE guidelines and acts based on COPE flowchart given below:

Complaints and appeals

The AJMB responds promptly to complaints and ensures there is a way for dissatisfied complainants to take complaints further by sending an email to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. We follow the COPE's guidelines and flowcharts for handling complaints against the journal, its staff, editorial board, or the publisher.

Clinical Trial Registry

In general, clinical trials consist research that studies new tests and treatments and evaluates their effects on human health outcomes. Based on the ICMJE recommendations, a clinical trial is defined as “any research project that prospectively assigns people or a group of people to an intervention, with or without concurrent comparison or control groups, to study the cause-and-effect, the relationship between a health-related intervention and a health outcome.” In agreement with the ICMJE’s recommendations, AJMB permits publishing clinical trials that have already been registered with a clinical trial registry in terms of unique identification code that grants free online access to the public. As per our policy, registration of all trials in all public registries approved by the ICMJE as the primary register of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform or Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) is a mandatory procedure.

Moreover, in line with ICMJE recommendations, clinical trials must be prospectively registered (before the trial starts and subjects are enrolled). Therefore, if the study is registered following its completion, the paper is not eligible to be published in AJMB.